Capsaicin & Scoville scale

  וילבור סקוביל (Wilbur Lincoln Scoville), כימאי תרופות אמריקאי קבע בשנת 1912 מדד לחריפות, על פי מדד סקוביל:
  אפס יחידות הוא חומר שלשוננו אדישה אליו, ו- 16 מיליון יחידות הוא שמן קפסאיצין טהור. כלומר, שעל כל טיפה של
  קפסאיצין שנשתה, נדרש לדללה ב- 16 מיליוני טיפות של מים כדי שטעם החריפות יעלם.

The Scoville scale measures the hotness or piquancy of a chili pepper, as defined by the amount of capsaicin it contains. Cap-saicin is achemical compound which stimulates chemoreceptor nerve endings in the skin, especially the mucousmem branes. The number of Scoville heat units (SHU) indicates the amount of capsaicin present. The scale is named after its creator, American chemist Wilbur Scoville, who developed a test for rating the pungency of chili peppers. His method, which he devised in 1912,[1] is known as the Scoville Organoleptic Test. An alternative method for quantitative analysis uses high-performance liquid chromatography, making it possible to directly measure capsaicinoid content. Some hot sauces use their Scoville rating in advertising as a selling point. Chili peppers, fruits of the Capsicum genus. (From Wikipedia encyclopedia)

Scoville rating

 Scoville scale - Type of pepper

15,000,000-16,000,000  Pure capsaicin [4]
8,600,000-9,100,000  Various capsaicinoids (e.g. homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin)
5,000,000-5,300,000  Law Enforcement Grade pepper spray,[5] FN 303 irritant ammunition
855,000-1,050,000  Naga Jolokia (a.k.a. Ghost pepper) [6] [7]
350,000-580,000  Red Savina Habanero [8] [9]
100,000-350,000  Habanero chili,[10] Scotch Bonnet Pepper,[10] Datil pepper, Rocoto, African Birdseye, Madame Jeanette,   Jamaican Hot Pepper [11]
50,000-100,000  Thai Pepper,[12] Malagueta Pepper,[12] Chiltepin Pepper, Pequin Pepper[12]
30,000-50,000  Cayenne Pepper, Ají pepper,[10] Tabasco pepper, some Chipotle peppers, Cumari pepper (Capsicum Chinese)
10,000-23,000  Serrano Pepper, some Chipotle peppers
2,500-8,000  Jalapeño Pepper, Guajillo pepper, New Mexican varieties of Anaheim pepper,[13] Paprika (Hungarian wax  pepper)
500-2,500  Anaheim pepper, Poblano Pepper, Rocotillo Pepper
100-500  Pimento, Peperoncini
0  No heat, Bell pepper

Capsaicin scale (pronounced kæp sesn) (8-methyl-vanillyl-6-nonen amide, (CH3)2CHCH=CH (CH2) (4CONH CH2C6H3-4-(OH)-3-(OCH3) is theactive component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into cont- act. Capsaicin and several related compounds are called capsaicinoids and are produced as a secondary metabolite by chili pep-pers, probably as deterrents against certain herbivores and fungi.[1] Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, crys- talline to waxy compound. (From Wikipedia encyclopedia)

Capsaicinoid name Abbrev. Typical relative
amount
Scoville
heat units
Chemical structure
Capsaicin C 69% 16,000,000 Chemical structure of capsaicin
Dihydrocapsaicin DHC 22% 15,000,000 Chemical structure of dihydrocapsaicin
Nordihydrocapsaicin NDHC 7% 9,100,000 Chemical structure of nordihydrocapsaicin
Homodihydrocapsaicin HDHC 1% 8,600,000 Chemical structure of homodihydrocapsaicin
Homocapsaicin HC 1% 8,600,000 Chemical structure of homocapsaicin
Nonivamide PAVA     Chemical structure of nonivamide

בין מיני הפילפלים החריפים ביותר ניתן למצוא צ'יפוטלה (Chipotle)אז'י (ají)חלאפנו (Jalapeño), והמון פלפלים אחרים במגוון שמות אקזוטיים, אבל המלך הבלתי מעורער, הוא הבאנרו (Habanero). הממזר הרשע הקטנטן, המופיע בצבעי אדום עד כתום -  בספר השיאים של גינס הבנארו מככב כהחריף ביותר.

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